6-7 page paper
2 COGNITIVE REASONS for racism ...can also include PREJUDICE...STEREOTYPE [generalized attitude]...VICTIM BLAMING...THEY ARE THOUGHTS...research on AMYGDALA/brain at least 1 source
2 SOCIAL REASONS for racism ...should have a behavioral and/or interactive component with people... INGROUP BIAS...DISCRIMINATION...INSTITUTIONALIZED least 1 source
Some concepts can be both social and cognitive like SELF-FULFILLING PROPHECY....STEREOTYPE THREAT
IMPLICIT or unconscious bias must be included in the least 1 source
Then, using at least 2 of the topics you chose above, discuss the role in criminal justice today

Examples of Peer Reviewed Research APA STYLE

Weapons Bias

Payne, B.K. (2006). Weapon bias: Split-second decisions and unintended stereotyping. Current Directions In Psychological Science, 15(6), 287-291. Retrieved from

In the original study by Payne (2001), subjects were shown a white or black face (as cited in Payne, 2006, p. 287).

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Original 2001 Payne study
Payne, B.K. (2001). Prejudice and perception: The role of automatic and controlled processes in misperceiving a weapon. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 81(2), 181-192. Retrieved from

Professor Payne is at the University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill

The police officer's dilemma

Correll, J., Park, B. Judd, C.M., Wittenbrink, B. (2002). The police officer's dilemma: Using ethnicity to disambiguate potentially threatening individuals. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 83(6), 1314-1329. Retrieved from

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Joshua Correll's lab is at Colorado State, Boulder

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UWTV. (2015, February 18). Implicit bias. How should psychological science inform the law? Pt. 1 Allen L. Edwards Psychology Lecture Series. [Video File] Retrieved from

Anthony Greenwald is part of IAT team and from the University of Virginia

...The Complexity of We

Dovidio, J.F., Gaertner, S.L., Saguy, T. (2009). Commonality and the complexity of "we": Social attitudes and social change. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 13(1), 3-20. Retrieved from

This in-text citation for 3-5 authors is (Dovidio, Gaertner, & Saguy, 2009) the first time and then (Dovidio, et al., 2009) subsequently

Be sure to reference other studies mentioned within a primary source. Example...

Huo (2003) research found that having a superordinate identity of "American..." made "majority and minority groups (i.e. Whites, Latinos, and Blacks)" more likely to consider justice for all (as cited in Dovidio, et al., 2009, p. 9).

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Professor Dovidio is at YALE

Pearson, A.R., Dovidio, J.F., Gaertner, S.L. (2009). The nature of contemporary prejudice: Insights from aversive racism. Social and Personality Psychology Compass, 3, 1-25. Retrieved from

The in-text citation for 3-5 authors is (Pearson, Dovidio, & Gaertner, 2009) the first time and then (Pearson, et al., 2009) subsequently.

IMPLICIT BIAS research collected by Ohio State
This is a secondary resource but it summarizes MANY primary sources that could be of use

Staats, C. (2014). State of the science: Implicit bias review 2014. Kirwan Institute For the Study of Race and Ethnicity. Retrieved from

Implicit Social Cognition

Brian Nosek, University of Virginia - also part of the IAT team

Nosek, B.A., Hawkins, B.C., Frazier, R.S. (2011). Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 15(4), 152-159. Retrieved from

Authors. (date of publication). Title with lowercase unless beginning of sentence. Title of Periodical, VOLUME(Number), pp. #