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MNEMONICS!!!!!!!!

Diffusion - confusion! not committed to any values/beliefs and not exploring
Moratorium (think DORA THE EXPLORA) not committed to any values/beliefs BUT VERY WILLING TO EXPLORE
Foreclosure (think closed-off) VERY COMMITTED to certain VALUES/BELIEFS but never explored other ideas outside of the expectations of friends/family.

Negative identity - typical rebel - go against anyone's expectations

Achievement - this person went through a personal crisis and is VERY COMMITTED to certain VALUES/BELIEFS and has EXPLORED NEW IDEAS



  • Personal fable - when teens believe no one understands them and/or that their life is unique
  • Imaginary audience - sometimes also called the spotlight effect. Teens overestimate the extent to which others observe them and/or scrutinize them
  • Rites of passage - in some cultures there are rituals or celebrations that mark a person's entry into adulthood or manhood or womanhood
  • Jeffrey Arnett-Jensen's Emerging Adulthood - this psychologist did a longitudinal study of 18-29 year olds in industrialized countries and he found that most do not feel like they are an adult even though they are technically in Erik Erikson's "EARLY ADULT" or "YOUNG ADULT" stage of 18-39. Arnett-Jensen argues that 18-29 year olds are still EXPLORING and going through MORATORIUM even through the college years.