THE EAR
http://nobelprize.org/educational_games/medicine/ear/

HEARING + ANIMATION
http://www.bbc.co.uk/science/humanbody/body/factfiles/hearing/hearing.shtml

LABEL EAR GAME
http://www.purposegames.com/game/705

TOUCH THE SOUND, Evelyn Glennie
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YLvkoAZYAkI&feature=related


EAR II
PLACE THEORY OF EAR +ANIMATION
http://www.blackwellpublishing.com/matthews/ear.html

THE VESTIBULAR SYSTEM
http://www.sumanasinc.com/webcontent/animations/content/vestibular.html

BALANCE/BODY POSTURE (VESTIBULAR SENSE) + ANIMATION
http://www.bbc.co.uk/science/humanbody/body/factfiles/balance/balance.shtml

What causes an ear infection?

For each ear, a eustachian (E-YOO-STAY-E-SHUN) tube runs from the middle ear to the back of the throat. This tube drains fluid that is normally made in the middle ear. If the eustachian tube becomes blocked, fluid can build up. When this happens, germs such as bacteria and viruses can multiply and cause an infection.
http://kidshealth.org/kid/ill_injure/sick/ear_infection.html

Where does tube get placed? Why?

http://www.webmd.com/cold-and-flu/ear-infection/tubes-for-ear-infections

How does a cochlear implant work?

A cochlear implant is very different from a hearing aid. Hearing aids amplify sounds so they may be detected by damaged ears. Cochlear implants bypass damaged portions of the ear and directly stimulate the auditory nerve.

Why do loud noises make headaches worse?

Noises, lights MAKE HEADACHES WORSE...Research from 2010!
http://www.sciencenews.org/view/generic/id/53845/title/Why_light_makes_migraines_worse
It is theorized that over-activity in thalamus/hypothalamus might be related to headaches/migraines. Light-sensitive neurons in the retina also cross into this thalamus area, so scientists think it might be like crossing TV and stereo wires: When the television turns on, the music does too. Since the thalamus directs senses, scientists think that noise (audition) and lights (vision) may activate the same neurons that are related to headaches. Whoah! Doctors are not completely aware how migraines begin.

Are ear "hair-cell receptors" on the basilar membrane like the "hair cells" in nose?

Cilia are present in almost all mammalian cell types1, and are particularly critical for olfaction, sight and hearing. Most primary cilia are cylindrical structures with a 9+0 microtubule arrangement. Although primary cilia present on most cell types exhibit relatively simple structures, sensory cell types exhibit highly specialized cilia structures. For instance, in the ear, the kinocilium is a microtubule based structure with a defined morphology2, and in the olfactory epithelium, olfactory neurons contain multiple elongated cilia emanating from a dendritic knob3. Photoreceptors in the eye also contain highly specialized cilia structures4. These structures are absolutely essential for the specialized sensory functions of these cell types. Defects in these cilia structures result in loss of sensory functions and syndromes such as anosmia and hearing loss5,6.
http://www.caesar.de/geruchssinn.html?&L=2

SMELL
http://www.bbc.co.uk/science/humanbody/body/factfiles/smell/smell_animation.shtml

SMELL SIMULATION
http://www.edumedia-sciences.com/en/a440-the-sense-of-smell

Helpful info on SMELL
http://www.cf.ac.uk/biosi/staffinfo/jacob/


GREAT EXPLANATION OF EYE
http://www.childrensuniversity.manchester.ac.uk/interactives/science/brainandsenses/eye.asp

SIGHT + ANIMATION
http://www.bbc.co.uk/science/humanbody/body/factfiles/sight/sight.shtml

EYE ANATOMY
http://www.lensshopper.com/eye-anatomy.asp

HOW WE SEE AND HEAR
http://bcs.wiley.com/he-bcs/Books?action=resource&bcsId=2827&itemId=0471747246&resourceId=7890&chapterId=19877


FOVEA - color experiment - we will do this in class
http://pbskids.org/zoom/activities/sci/peripheralvision.html
Wood oblique rays being blocked by the wood around the hole, whereas rays reaching the fovea of the eye are almost parallel.
http://www.physpharm.fmd.uwo.ca/undergrad/sensesweb/L11EyeMovements/L11EyeMovements.swf





VISION II group
This could be helpful when explaining transmitted light vs. reflective light AND the difference between additive/subtractive color models
http://www.sketchpad.net/basics4.htm

VISION II - Trichromatic theory or Young Helmholtz theory animation
First, a youtube video explains trichromatic theory and colorblindness
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Jzl9VPnA3OY

Then, you can play this demo for the class to show how the THREE color cones combine to create the various colors we see
http://phet.colorado.edu/simulations/sims.php?sim=Color_Vision#topics
Click RUN NOW! to play the demo

Remember, these THREE CONES are the PRIMARY COLORS OF LIGHT


VISION II group - Opponent Process Color Theory
Proves true when using afterimages like this one
http://www.sandlotscience.com/Aftereffects/USA_Flag.htm


VISION II group - Color constancy, Illusions
http://www.lottolab.org/articles/illusionsoflight.asp





TOUCH + ANIMATION
http://faculty.washington.edu/chudler/flash/hom.html

TRANSDUCTION AND TOUCH
http://www.sumanasinc.com/webcontent/animations/content/skinreceptors.html

ACCUPUNCTURE on Gray's Anatomy
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CZWj6zhfDEU

THE POWER OF TOUCH
http://www.teachersdomain.org/resource/tdc02.sci.life.reg.touch/

MIRROR THERAPY and Phantom Limb Pain
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YL_6OMPywnQ

Rubber Hand Illusion
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sxwn1w7MJvk&safety_mode=true&persist_safety_mode=1
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=q3eKy-ZG-tk&safety_mode=true&persist_safety_mode=1
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nzF_DfOafKw&feature=related&safety_mode=true&persist_safety_mode=1

TASTE + ANIMATION
http://www.bbc.co.uk/science/humanbody/body/factfiles/taste/taste.shtml

TASTEBUD DEMO - we will do this in class! EXCITING!!!
http://www.bbc.co.uk/science/humanbody/body/articles/senses/tongue_experiment.shtml

TASTE and the science behind SUPERTASTERS!
http://www.bbc.co.uk/science/humanbody/body/articles/senses/supertaster.shtml

The Ph factor and FOOD
http://www.billingsgazette.com/lifestyles/health-med-fit/article_c63b805a-c8e8-11de-b6de-001cc4c03286.html
Supertasters more picky about bitter foods: leafy greens, coffee, unsweetened chocolate, olives, grapefruit. Sour items typically contain acid while bitter items typically contain base/alkaloid.

NEW TASTE RESEARCH!
http://www.billingsgazette.com/lifestyles/health-med-fit/article_c63b805a-c8e8-11de-b6de-001cc4c03286.html

WHY ARE PEPPERS HOT?
http://www.pbs.org/saf/1105/video/watchonline.htm
It's the capsaicin in the peppers that makes them hot. Recently, scientists were surprised to discover that capsaicin is also the source of a medical breakthrough, seen here on TV for the first time. Paradoxically, what makes peppers burn can also bring relief from pain -- under the right circumstances.

More ideas for supertasters...
http://www.pbs.org/safarchive/4_class/45_pguides/pguide_904/4494_peppers.html#act2

Signal Detection theory Experiment

http://epsych.msstate.edu/deliberate/sig_det/index.html?8.html

More signal detection

http://www.noiseaddicts.com/2009/03/can-you-hear-this-hearing-test/

IF YOU MISSED THE PRESENTATION IN CLASS FRIDAY OR WANT TO REVIEW ANY OF THE DEMOS


PERCEPTION and review Selective Attention Video

Sometimes we don't realize how we might miss something as we pay attention to one stimulus (inattentional blindness)
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Ahg6qcgoay4


Other videos on change blindness, etc.
http://viscog.beckman.illinois.edu/djs_lab/demos.html

DICHOTIC LISTENTING EXPERIMENTS

When people had headphones on, they were told to listen and repeat words in the ENGLISH language or FRENCH language. At the same time, they were told to IGNORE curses in English in their other ear. What do you think was more difficult? Repeating ENGLISH words while listening to curses in English or repeating FRENCH words while listening to curses in English? See the experiment below or read the answer below
http://www.alma.edu/departments/psychology/st2002/dichotic/dichotic.htm

People were more distracted when they heard English curse words and French because it was easier to ignore a foreign language. It was more distracting to hear one's own language or one's name while a foreign language or jibberish was playing in the other ear.



SCHEMA/PERCEPTUAL SET: FACES IN THE STRANGEST PLACES!!!!

Our brain has ideas (schemas) that it follows. For example, we believe FACES are convex (3-D) and not concave (indented) This causes our mind to be tricked by various illusions. Click on SHOW VIDEO when you go to these links...
Hollow face illusion: http://www.grand-illusions.com/opticalillusions/hollow_face/
Little dragon illusion: http://www.grand-illusions.com/opticalillusions/dragon_illusion/

If you want to make a dragon for one extra credit point see the download link on the dragon page

More schema and Gestalt Principles (like closure) by "THE PSYCH FILES" Guy

http://www.thepsychfiles.com/tag/gestalt/


GESTALT PRINCIPLES - add the Law of similarity/Law of Pragnanz (it is on the following link)

http://www.garyfisk.com/anim/gestalt.swf

MONOCULAR CUES

We can see the following things with ONE EYE
Light/shadow

Interposition (overlap)
http://www.cise.ufl.edu/~fishwick/rube/worlds/sd1/images/ex_circle.jpg

Linear perspective (lines converging/meeting in the distance)
http://www.cns.nyu.edu/~david/courses/perception/lecturenotes/depth/depth-slides/Slide31.jpg

Relative size (distant objects seems smaller and large objects seem closer)
http://psych.hanover.edu/KRANTZ/art/rel_size.html

Texture gradient (changing from course to fine)
http://www.ottobw.dds.nl/filosofie/texture.jpg

Atmospheric perspective or relative clarity (we can see if it is hazy or clear - things that are clear are closer and things fade as they grow distant)
http://visart1.files.wordpress.com/2009/09/t629048a.jpg

Relative motion (we can tell we are moving)


BINOCULAR CUES

We can see the following things with TWO EYES

Retinal Disparity: each of our eyes give us a unique, 2-D perspective and this combines to create a 3-D image
CLICK ON LINK BELOW AND CLICK STEREO FOR EXAMPLE
http://www.physpharm.fmd.uwo.ca/undergrad/sensesweb/L2VisualCortex/l2v1.swf
Can also try the sausage experiment in book

Great depth perception (be able to see 3-D and how far things are/how close they are) - most accurate with TWO EYES
http://www.catherineshafer.com/images/visual_cliff_1_.png

Convergence (when our eye muscles strain to move inward as our finger is brought closer to our face)
http://thumb9.shutterstock.com.edgesuite.net/display_pic_with_logo/122689/122689,1246703902,1/stock-photo-funny-shot-of-a-cute-child-watching-her-finger-with-cross-eyes-33099733.jpg



MOTION PARALLAX

As we move, we use distance cues: things closes to us MOVE FAST and BACKWARDS (when in a car) and things further away MOVE SLOW and FORWARD
http://psych.hanover.edu/krantz/MotionParallax/MotionParallax.html

PHI PHENOMENON

It seems that lights are MOVING when they are not - they are only being turned on and off in succession
http://www.philosophy.uncc.edu/faculty/phi/Phi_Color2.html
http://www.sandlotscience.com/Aftereffects/Purple_Phaze.htm


PERCEPTUAL CONSTANCY - there are many kinds like size constancy, color constancy/light/bright constancy, shape constancy

We know things are the same color even when the background changes or illumination changes.

Shape constancy
For example, we know a door is the SAME size even when it appears different as it opens/closes.
http://www.cogsci.bme.hu/~ikovacs/latas2005/prepIII_1_files/j_fig4.jpg

Color constancy
We know the gray is the same, but it seems different when background changes (move bar across)
http://www.sandlotscience.com/Contrast/Whites_Illusion.htm

*Remember, we know a rose is still RED even if a room is darker

Size constancy
We know something is the same size even if background makes it appear different
http://www.psychologie.tu-dresden.de/i1/kaw/diverses%20Material/www.illusionworks.com/assets/images/constancy.jpg
http://www.cns.nyu.edu/~david/courses/perception/lecturenotes/depth/depth-slides/Slide34.jpg

THE MOON ILLUSION explained

Sometimes the moon seems bigger on certain nights, but the moon can be occluded or covered by a pea! the entire year. When the moon is high in the sky, it is actually CLOSER to our eye's view, yet many of us percieve the moon to be SMALLER when it is high in the sky (vs. on the horizon). When the moon is on the horizon, it is literally FURTHER away from our eye, and we see it as LARGER** - even though it is the SAME SIZE ALL YEAR.
Can read up about it here...
http://www.pnas.org/content/97/1/500.full

Okay - now here is the tricky part! Some people do not see the horizon/harvest moon as FARTHER, but CLOSER! Uh-oh. This could be because of relative size - we think large objects are closer and small objects are further; however, we can only do this when we KNOW TWO ITEMS are the same size. There are some new theories coming out for the moon illusion, so one day, there may be a new explanation besides the ones provided.