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Approaches Hand Mnemonic
Neuron Ion Flow
Sleep, dreams, drugs
HEARING + ANIMATION
LABEL EAR GAME
TOUCH THE SOUND, Evelyn Glennie
PLACE THEORY OF EAR +ANIMATION
THE VESTIBULAR SYSTEM
BALANCE/BODY POSTURE (
) + ANIMATION
What causes an ear infection?
For each ear, a eustachian (E-YOO-STAY-E-SHUN) tube runs from the middle ear to the back of the throat. This tube drains fluid that is normally made in the middle ear. If the eustachian tube becomes blocked, fluid can build up. When this happens, germs such as bacteria and viruses can multiply and cause an infection.
Where does tube get placed? Why?
How does a cochlear implant work?
A cochlear implant is very different from a hearing aid.
Hearing aids amplify sounds so they may be detected by damaged ears
. Cochlear implants bypass damaged portions of the ear and directly stimulate the auditory nerve.
Why do loud noises make headaches worse?
Noises, lights MAKE HEADACHES WORSE...
It is theorized that over-activity in
/hypothalamus might be related to headaches/migraines. Light-sensitive neurons in the retina also cross into this thalamus area, so scientists think it might be like crossing TV and stereo wires: When the television turns on, the music does too. Since the
directs senses, scientists think that noise (audition) and lights (vision) may activate the same neurons that are related to headaches. Whoah! Doctors are not completely aware how migraines begin.
Are ear "hair-cell receptors" on the basilar membrane like the "hair cells" in nose?
Cilia are present in almost all mammalian cell types1, and are particularly critical for olfaction, sight and hearing. Most primary cilia are cylindrical structures with a 9+0 microtubule arrangement. Although primary cilia present on most cell types exhibit relatively simple structures, sensory cell types exhibit highly specialized cilia structures. For instance, in the ear, the kinocilium is a microtubule based structure with a defined morphology2, and in the olfactory epithelium, olfactory neurons contain multiple elongated cilia emanating from a dendritic knob3. Photoreceptors in the eye also contain highly specialized cilia structures4. These structures are absolutely essential for the specialized sensory functions of these cell types. Defects in these cilia structures result in loss of sensory functions and syndromes such as anosmia and hearing loss5,6.
Helpful info on SMELL
GREAT EXPLANATION OF EYE
SIGHT + ANIMATION
HOW WE SEE AND HEAR
FOVEA - color experiment -
we will do this in class
oblique rays being blocked by the wood around the hole, whereas rays reaching the fovea of the eye are almost parallel.
VISION II group
This could be helpful when explaining transmitted light vs. reflective light AND the difference between additive/subtractive color models
VISION II - Trichromatic theory or Young Helmholtz theory animation
First, a youtube video explains trichromatic theory and colorblindness
Then, you can play this demo for the class to show how the THREE color cones combine to create the various colors we see
Click RUN NOW! to play the demo
Remember, these THREE CONES are the PRIMARY COLORS OF LIGHT
VISION II group - Opponent Process Color Theory
Proves true when using afterimages like this one
VISION II group - Color constancy, Illusions
TOUCH + ANIMATION
TRANSDUCTION AND TOUCH
ACCUPUNCTURE on Gray's Anatomy
THE POWER OF TOUCH
MIRROR THERAPY and Phantom Limb Pain
Rubber Hand Illusion
TASTE + ANIMATION
- we will do this in class! EXCITING!!!
TASTE and the science behind SUPERTASTERS!
The Ph factor and FOOD
Supertasters more picky about bitter foods: leafy greens, coffee, unsweetened chocolate, olives, grapefruit. Sour items typically contain acid while bitter items typically contain base/alkaloid.
NEW TASTE RESEARCH!
WHY ARE PEPPERS HOT?
It's the capsaicin in the peppers that makes them hot. Recently, scientists were surprised to discover that capsaicin is also the source of a medical breakthrough, seen here on TV for the first time. Paradoxically, what makes peppers burn can also bring relief from pain -- under the right circumstances.
More ideas for supertasters...
Signal Detection theory Experiment
More signal detection
IF YOU MISSED THE PRESENTATION IN CLASS FRIDAY OR WANT TO REVIEW ANY OF THE DEMOS
PERCEPTION and review Selective Attention Video
Sometimes we don't realize how we might miss something as we pay attention to one stimulus (inattentional blindness)
Other videos on change blindness, etc.
DICHOTIC LISTENTING EXPERIMENTS
When people had headphones on, they were told to listen and repeat words in the ENGLISH language or FRENCH language. At the same time, they were told to IGNORE curses in English in their other ear. What do you think was more difficult? Repeating ENGLISH words while listening to curses in English or repeating FRENCH words while listening to curses in English? See the experiment below or read the answer below
People were more distracted when they heard English curse words and French because it was easier to ignore a foreign language. It was more distracting to hear one's own language or one's name while a foreign language or jibberish was playing in the other ear.
SCHEMA/PERCEPTUAL SET: FACES IN THE STRANGEST PLACES!!!!
Our brain has ideas (schemas) that it follows. For example, we believe FACES are convex (3-D) and not concave (indented) This causes our mind to be tricked by various illusions. Click on SHOW VIDEO when you go to these links...
Hollow face illusion:
Little dragon illusion:
If you want to make a dragon for one extra credit point see the download link on the dragon page
More schema and Gestalt Principles (like closure) by "THE PSYCH FILES" Guy
GESTALT PRINCIPLES - add the Law of similarity/Law of Pragnanz (it is on the following link)
We can see the following things with ONE EYE
Linear perspective (lines converging/meeting in the distance)
Relative size (distant objects seems smaller and large objects seem closer)
Texture gradient (changing from course to fine)
Atmospheric perspective or relative clarity (we can see if it is hazy or clear - things that are clear are closer and things fade as they grow distant)
Relative motion (we can tell we are moving)
We can see the following things with TWO EYES
Retinal Disparity: each of our eyes give us a unique, 2-D perspective and this combines to create a 3-D image
CLICK ON LINK BELOW AND CLICK STEREO FOR EXAMPLE
Can also try the sausage experiment in book
Great depth perception (be able to see 3-D and how far things are/how close they are) - most accurate with TWO EYES
Convergence (when our eye muscles strain to move inward as our finger is brought closer to our face)
As we move, we use distance cues: things closes to us MOVE FAST and BACKWARDS (when in a car) and things further away MOVE SLOW and FORWARD
It seems that lights are MOVING when they are not - they are only being turned on and off in succession
PERCEPTUAL CONSTANCY - there are many kinds like size constancy, color constancy/light/bright constancy, shape constancy
We know things are the same color even when the background changes or illumination changes.
For example, we know a door is the SAME size even when it appears different as it opens/closes.
We know the gray is the same, but it seems different when background changes (move bar across)
*Remember, we know a rose is still RED even if a room is darker
We know something is the same size even if background makes it appear different
THE MOON ILLUSION explained
Sometimes the moon seems bigger on certain nights, but the moon can be occluded or covered by a pea! the entire year. When the moon is high in the sky, it is actually CLOSER to our eye's view, yet many of us percieve the moon to be SMALLER when it is high in the sky (vs. on the horizon). When the moon is on the horizon, it is literally FURTHER away from our eye, and we see it as LARGER** - even though it is the SAME SIZE ALL YEAR.
Can read up about it here...
Okay - now here is the tricky part! Some people do not see the horizon/harvest moon as FARTHER, but CLOSER! Uh-oh. This could be because of relative size - we think large objects are closer and small objects are further; however, we can only do this when we KNOW TWO ITEMS are the same size. There are some new theories coming out for the moon illusion, so one day, there may be a new explanation besides the ones provided.
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